(Degenerative Joint Disease; Arthritis, Osteo-)
|Joints Affected by Osteoarthritis|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Being overweight or obese
- Having a family history of osteoarthritis
- Having an injury to the joint surface
- Having an occupation or doing physical activities that put stress on joints
- Having an endocrine disorder (such as diabetes)
- Being older
- Mild-to-severe pain in a joint, especially after overuse or long periods of inactivity, such as sitting for a long time
- Creaking or grating sound in the joint
- Swelling, stiffness, limited movement of the joint, especially in the morning
- Weakness in muscles around the sore joint
- Deformity of the joint
Over-the-counter pain medicine:
- Acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), for example ibuprofen (such as Advil) and naproxen (for example, Aleve)
- Topical pain medicines (such as creams or patches) that are applied to the skin, for example, capsaicin, methyl salicylate, menthol, diclofenac
Prescription pain medicine, such as:
- Diclofenac and misoprostol (Arthrotec)—NSAID; may reduce the risk for gastrointestinal bleeding
- Opiates and opiate-like medicines
- Antidepressants, such as duloxetine (Cymbalta)—may be prescribed to treat chronic pain from osteoarthritis
- Viscosupplementation—injection of a substance called hyaluronan into the joint, which helps lubricate the joint
Exercise and Physical Therapy
Heat and Ice
- Reposition bones to redistribute stress on the joint
- Replace joints
- Remove loose pieces of bone or cartilage from joints
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Do regular, gentle exercise (for example, walking, stretching, swimming, yoga).
- Avoid repetitive motions and risky activities that may contribute to joint injury, especially after age 40.
- With advancing age, certain activities may have to be stopped or modified. But, continue to be active.
American College of Rheumatology http://www.rheumatology.org
The Arthritis Foundation http://www.arthritis.org
The Arthritis Society http://www.arthritis.ca
Seniors Canada http://www.seniors.gc.ca
American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Osteoarthritis. Recommendations for the medical management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. 2000 update. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43:1905-1915.
Arthritis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health%5FInfo/Osteoarthritis/default.asp. Published July 2002. Updated May 2006. Accessed June 9, 2008.
Jordan K, Arden N, et al. EULAR recommendations 2003: an evidence based approach to the management of knee osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis. 2003;62:1145-1155.
Osteoarthritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com. Updated April 3, 2012. Accessed April 19, 2012.
Osteoarthritis. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatment website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary. Accessed March 4, 2008.
van den Berg WB. Pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. Joint Bone Spine. 2000;67:555-556.
10/21/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Fransen M, McConnell S. Exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;CD004376.
12/11/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Rutjes WJ, Nuesch E, Sterchi R, et al. Transcutaneous electrostimulation for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(4):CD002823.
10/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Wandel S, Jüni P, Tendal B, et al. Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;341:c4675.
10/26/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Massey T, Derry S, Moore R, McQuay H. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(6):CD007402.
11/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: US Food and Drug Administration. FDA clears Cymbalta to treat chronic musculoskeletal pain. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm232708.htm. Published November 4, 2010. Accessed November 12, 2010.
11/29/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: French HP, Brennan A, White B, Cusack T. Manual therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a systematic review. Man Ther. 2011;16(2):109-117.
- Reviewer: Rosalyn Carson-DeWitt, MD
- Review Date: 12/2011 -
- Update Date: 04/19/2012 -